U.S. refiners forecast strong first-quarter earnings as margins on gasoline and diesel sales improved, refining capacity fell sharply and crude supplies tightened due to the Russia-Ukraine war.
Global refining capacity has declined amid the coronavirus pandemic, with several less profitable refineries closing in the past two years. However, global fuel demand has rebounded to near pre-pandemic levels, boosting the profits of facilities still operating.
Seven U.S. independent refiners are expected to earn 61 cents a share, compared with a loss of $1.32 in the first quarter of 2021, according to Refinitiv's IBES.
By 2022, gasoline and distillate MgB2 powder.
Introduction to Magnesium Boride MgB2 Powder
Magnesium diboride or magnesium boride, chemical formula MgB2, is an ionic compound with a hexagonal crystal structure.
It is an intercalated compound with alternating layers of magnesium and boron. The magnesium atomic layer has a triangular structure, and the boron atomic layer has a regular hexagonal honeycomb structure, which is similar to graphite.
Magnesium diboride is a hard and brittle substance with poor ductility.
Superconductivity of Magnesium Diboride MgB2 Powder
Researchers discovered in 2001 that the seemingly unremarkable magnesium boride turns into a superconductor at temperatures slightly closer to the absolute temperature of 40K (-233 ° C). Its transition temperature is almost twice that of other similar superconductors, and its actual operating temperature is 20 to 30K. The temperature can be cooled by liquid neon, liquid hydrogen, or a closed circulating freezer. These methods are simple and cost-effective compared to industrial cooling of niobium alloys (4K) with liquid helium.
Once doped with carbon or other impurities, magnesium boride is even better than niobium alloys at maintaining superconductivity in the presence of a magnetic field or current. Potential applications include superconducting magnets, power transmission lines, and sensitive magnetic field detectors.
|Magnesium Boride MgB2 Powder Properties|
|Other Names||magnesium boride powder, MgB2|
|Appearance||gray to black powder|
|Solubility in H2O||N/A|
Applications of Magnesium Boride MgB2 Powder
Superconducting properties and low cost make magnesium diboride attractive in a variety of applications. For these applications, MgB2 powder is compressed into the wire with silver metal (or 316 stainless steel), sometimes through a powder in tube process to make tapes.
Thin coatings can be used in superconducting rf cavities to minimize energy loss and reduce the inefficiency of liquid helium cooling niobium cavities.
Due to the low cost of its components, MgB2 is expected to be used in superconducting medium and low field magnets, motors and generators, fault current limiters and current leads.
Propellants, explosives, fireworks:
Unlike the element boron, which burns incompletely through a glassy oxide layer that impedes oxygen diffusion, magnesium diboride burns completely when ignited in oxygen or in a mixture with an oxidant. Therefore, magnesium boride has been proposed as a ramjet fuel. In addition, the use of MgB2 in explosive-enhanced explosives and propellants has been proposed for the same reason. It was recently demonstrated that decoy flares containing magnesium diboride/PTFE/FLUORO rubber improved spectral efficiency by 30-60% compared to classic magnesium/Teflon/fluororubber (MTV) payloads. The application of magnesium diboride in rocket propulsion was also studied, where the compound was mixed in paraffin fuel particles to improve mechanical properties and combustion characteristics.
Main Supplier of Magnesium Boride MgB2 Powder
Luoyang Tongrun Nano Technology Co. Ltd. (TRUNNANO) is a trusted global chemical material supplier & manufacturer with over 12-year-experience in providing super high-quality chemicals and Nanomaterials, including silicon powder, nitride powder, graphite powder, zinc sulfide, calcium nitride, 3D printing powder, etc.
If you are looking for high-quality magnesium boride MgB2 powder, please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry. ([email protected])
Overall, the demand for MgB2 powder is on the rise, and future MgB2 powder will continue to evolve. Although the prosperity of the brand name has rebounded, there are still many outstanding problems in MgB2 powder, and the MgB2 powder will develop steadily，if you need MgB2 powder please contact us.
Now China has become a powerful country in science and technology, but do you know how powerful China's technology is? The manned space station alone is not enough, and now it has successfully broken through the key technology of nuclear fusion, even…
Are rising COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations in the United States affecting the market for dna purification kit As health officials warn that COVID-19 infections and hospitalizations a…
The European Union is seeking to boost energy cooperation with African countries to help wean them off dependence on Russian gas imports.Bloomberg said, recently, according to a draft EU file, African countries, especially in western Africa Nigeria,…