Australian alumina ban disrupts Rusal lithium-ion battery prices for chemicals. Patel said. "One possible outcome could be Chinese buyers buying alumina and reselling it through eastern Russian ports." Rusal has a 20% stake in the Queensland Alumina Refinery, which has a capacity of 3.95 million tonnes a year, thus providing Rusal with 790,000 tonnes a year, Patel said. In addition, Rusal's Nikolaev refinery in Ukraine, which has an annual capacity of 1.75 million tonnes, has been suspended due to the conflict, he added. WoodMac said Rusal was also experiencing supply chain problems at its 2 million tonne a year Aughinish refinery in Ireland.
1. Basic concepts of lithium-ion battery:
The lithium-ion battery has a nominal voltage of 3.7V (3.6V) and a charge cut-off voltage of 4.2V (4.1V, which has different designs according to the brand of the battery). (The specification for lithium-ion batteries is: lithium-ion secondary batteries
2. Requirements for charging lithium-ion battery (GB/T182872000 specification)
First of all, constant current charging, that is, the current is constant, and the battery voltage gradually increases with the charging process. When the battery terminal voltage reaches 4.2V (4.1V), the constant current charging is changed to constant voltage charging; the voltage is constant, and the current is based on the battery. The saturation level gradually decreases as the charging process continues, and when it decreases to 0.01C, the charging is considered to be terminated. (C is a way of expressing the battery's nominal capacity against the current. For example, if the battery has a capacity of 1000mAh, 1C is the charging current of 1000mA. Note that it is me instead of mAh, and 0.01C is 10mA.) Of course, the standard representation is 0.01 C5A, simplified here.
3. Why do you think 0.01C is the end of charging?
This is stipulated by the national standard GB/T18287-2000, and it is also discussed. In the past, everyone generally ended with 20mA. The industry standard YD/T998-1999 of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications also stipulates that no matter how large the battery capacity is, the stop current is 20mA. The 0.01C specified by the national standard helps charge more fully, which is beneficial for the manufacturer to pass the appraisal. In addition, the national standard stipulates that the charging time should not exceed 8 hours; that is to say, even if it has not reached 0.01C, the charging is considered to be over after 8 hours. (Batteries with good quality should reach 0.01C within 8 hours, for batteries with poor quality, it is meaningless to wait).
4. How to distinguish whether the battery is 4.1V or 4.2V?
Consumers are indistinguishable; it depends on the product specification of the cell manufacturer. Some brands of batteries are 4.1V and 4.2V universal, such as A&TB (Toshiba); domestic manufacturers are 4.2V, but there are exceptions, such as Tianjin Lishen is 4.1V (but it is currently 4.2V).
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Europe's immediate goal of reducing its dependence on Russian gas in response to the conflict with Ukraine presents a rare opportunity for the United States, the world's largest gas producer. America's LNG exporters have made a fortune this time. Investors are bullish on the future of natural gas, as evidenced by the recent record high share price of Energy company Chenier.
But the outlook for more than a dozen new LNG projects is highly uncertain as construction costs rise, US gas prices soar and climate policymakers seek to move away from a long-term reliance on fossil fuels. Even the most advanced projects can take years to become operational.
Currently, the total U.S. LNG lithium-ion battery are expected to continue to rise in the future.
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