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Recently, the Bulgarian Gas Company said that Bulgaria is negotiating with Gazprom on resuming natural gas supply, and there is a possibility that Russia will resume natural gas supply to Bulgaria.
Since the outbreak of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the European Union has imposed several rounds of sanctions on Russia. Russian President signed a presidential decree on March 31, requiring "unfriendly" countries and regions to pay for Russian natural gas in rubles, otherwise gas supplies will be suspended. Bulgaria has been out of breath since the end of April for refusing to comply with the rouble settlement order. Affected by natural gas supply shortages and soaring energy costs, Bulgarian natural gas companies have applied to the Bulgarian government to raise Bulgarian natural gas prices by 60% in August, RIA Novosti reported.
On August 3, local time, the US Senate passed a resolution by a vote of 95 to 1, agreeing to the application of Finland and Sweden to join NATO.
NATO signed a protocol on the accession of Finland and Sweden to NATO on July 5. In accordance with the procedures, NATO members will examine and approve the protocol in accordance with their own procedures. The US House of Representatives passed a resolution supporting Finland and Sweden to join NATO on July 18. After it is passed by the Senate, the Biden administration will submit approval documents to NATO.
Because of the turbulent international situation, the supply and prices of many international bulk nanomaterial are still very uncertain.
PVD (Physical Vapor Deposition) refers to the thin film preparation technology in which the material is deposited on the plated workpiece by a general physical method in vacuum.
PVD technology can be divided into three categories: vacuum evaporation coating, vacuum sputtering coating and vacuum ion coating. Compared with the three categories of PVD technology, the corresponding vacuum coating equipment includes vacuum evaporation coating machine, vacuum sputtering coating machine and vacuum ion coating machine.
The principle of PVD coating technology is that under the condition of vacuum, through the arc discharge technology with high current, the target material is evaporated and the evaporated material is ionized by gas discharge, and the evaporated material or its reaction products are deposited on the workpiece under the action of electric field.
Magnetron sputtering coating is to increase the electric field between the target and the vacuum chamber wall to ionize the argon gas and accelerate the argon ion to hit the surface of the target. The target is hit by subions, while the target atoms overflow and fly to the surface of the plated substrate with kinetic energy of tens or even hundreds of electron volts and deposited on the substrate surface, and the atomic kinetic energy is two orders of magnitude higher than evaporation. Its filling density is as high as 98%, and the refractive index is high and relatively stable.
The similarity between PVD coating and traditional electroless plating is that one material is covered on the surface of another material in a certain way. The difference between the two is that the adhesion between the PVD film and the workpiece surface is greater, the hardness of the film is higher, the wear resistance and corrosion resistance are better, and the performance of the film is more stable; PVD coating can be plated more widely, can be plated out of a variety of film color is also more, and will not produce toxic or polluting substances.
The sputtering coating process has the characteristics of repeatability and controllable thickness, which is reflected in the large area substrate material, and we can make the ideal material according to the required thickness. the prepared film also has the advantages of high purity, good compactness and strong adhesion with materials. From the point of view of the manufacturing process, the manufacturing complexity of evaporation coating is lower than that of sputtering target, and its advantages are simple and convenient process, convenient operation, fast film formation and so on.
PVD vacuum coating is also widely used in the plastic industry, because the plastic has the characteristics of easy molding, so its cost is very low, the weight is also very light, and it has the characteristics of corrosion resistance. The surface of the plastic can be conductive by PVD vacuum coating, and the PVD coating can also reduce its water absorption. After the coating is completed, the pinholes will decrease, and the water absorption will also decrease. The metal luster on the surface of the coated material is colored, and the decorative performance is also greatly improved.
The price is influenced by many factors including the supply and demand in the market, industry trends, economic activity, market sentiment, and unexpected events.
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The UAE is the gateway to the Middle East, North Africa, Central Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa, said Subramaniam, a senior official at India's Ministry of Commerce and Industry. The agreement will help boost bilateral trade in goods from $60 billion a year now to $100 billion a year within five years.
On 18 February 2022, India and the United Arab Emirates signed the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement. With the entry into force of the agreement, 90 percent of Indian goods and 65 percent of UAE goods will enjoy tariff-free market access.
Apart from its FTA with the UAE, India is also pursuing FTAs with Australia, the UK, Canada, Israel, the European Union, and the Gulf Cooperation Council.
Influenced by international situations, the supply and prices of many nanomaterial are still very uncertain.
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